Vatican City has an open border with Italy. In 2006, it expressed interest in joining the Schengen Agreement for closer cooperation on the exchange of information and similar activities under the Schengen Information System.  Exceptionally, Italy allowed people to visit Vatican City without being accepted for an Italian visa, and then to be escorted by police between the airport and the Vatican or to use a helicopter. [Citation required] However, there is no customs union (or customs duties) between Italy and the Vatican, which is why all vehicles are checked at the borders of Vaticano. Originally, the Schengen area had its legal basis outside the European Economic Community at the time, since it was created by a subset of Community Member States using two international agreements: this situation means that non-Schengen EU Member States have few formally binding options to influence the design and evolution of the Schengen rules; their options will be effectively reduced to approval or withdrawal from the agreement. However, prior to the adoption of certain new legislation, consultations will be held with the countries concerned.   Report from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council, Second Half-Yearly Report on the Functioning of the Schengen Area, 1 May 2012 – 31 October 2012, COM (2012) 686 final 11/23/1012 ec.europa.eu/dgs/home-affairs/what-is-new/news/pdf/2_en_act_part1_v7_schengen.pdf. Before concluding an agreement with a neighbouring state, the Schengen state must obtain the agreement of the European Commission, which must confirm that the draft agreement complies with the regulation. The agreement can only be concluded if the neighbouring state at least grants reciprocal rights to EEA and Swiss nationals residing on the Schengen side of the border region and accepts the repatriation of persons who abuse the border agreement. A short-stay visa costs €60 ($46; $66), but only €35 for Russians, Ukrainians and citizens of some other countries under visa facilitation agreements.
Originally, the Schengen Treaties and subsequent rules were officially independent of the EEC and its successor, the European Union (EU). In 1999, they were transposed into European Union legislation by the Treaty of Amsterdam, which provides for Schengen, codified in EU law, while providing for opt-outs for Ireland and the United Kingdom, the latter providing for opt-outs since leaving the EU. EU Member States that do not have an opt-out and have not yet joined the Schengen area are legally obliged to do so if they meet the technical requirements. Although it is linked to EU law, several non-EU countries that have signed the agreement are included in the territory. There are or have been plans for Lithuania-Russia, Poland-Belarus, Bulgaria-Serbia and Bulgaria-North Macedonia local transport agreements.  The agreement between Poland and Belarus is expected to enter into force until 2012,282], but Belarus has been delayed with no transposition date set (October 2012).  Schengen States that share an external land border with a third country are authorised, in accordance with Regulation 1931/2006, to conclude or maintain bilateral agreements with neighbouring third countries for the purpose of implementing a local border transport regime.  These agreements define a border area that can extend on either side of the border to a maximum of 50 kilometers (31 miles) and provide for the granting of permits for local border traffic to the inhabitants of the border area. . .